Long before Nigeria amalgamated, the various people that existed independently then had established their own indigenous systems of administration. There were recognized political entities such as the Benin Empire, Bornu Empire, Sokoto Caliphate, Oyo Empire at some few others.
Earlier in the 19th century, the British had conquered the different parts of the present Nigeria at different time and established control and authority over them. These areas were grouped into protectorates as Lagos, Niger Coast . We have the Northern protectorate, and the Southern protectorate.
The regions /protectorates were amalgamated in 1914 by the British, thus comes into existence the great country known as NIGERIA.
Nigeria was under British colonial rule at the time upon its subjugation of the indigenous people this resulted in agitation for self-agitation for self –government and independent.
The struggle for liberation started between 1922 and 1959 on the 1st October, 1960. Nigeria finally got her independent from British colonial rule and was controlled at the center by the Federal government and three regions government in the East, West, and North of the country and later in 1963 midwest Region was carved out of the western region.
In the first republic, Nigeria was running a parliamentary system of government until January 1966 when the first military intervention interrupted the system, this marked the beginning and succession of military government in the nation’s politics and this continued till 1979 when the second republic of President Shehu Shagari adopted the president system of government.
In 1983 military struck again to occupy the governance of the country. Nigeria again witnessed another round of military government until 1983 when General Ibrahim Babangida Stepped aside to interim civilian administration that lasted for only three months when another military intervention headed by General Sanni Abacha.
General Sanni Abacha ruled the country from 1993 to 1998 when General Abdusalami Abubakar headed the new military administration after the sudden death of Abacha.
In May 1999, precisely in less than one year of the new administration, Gen Abubakar restored democracy back to Nigeria by conducting election that brought in Chief Olusegun Obasanjo. The administration of Chief Olusegun Obasanjo was inaugurated on May 29, 1999. Simultaneously, executive governors that constitute 36 states of the federation were also sworn in.This development marked the new era in the political history of Nigeria since 1999 to date that arrangement is not interrupted.
Political Structure In Nigeria
In the present Presidential System of Government that is now in place, there is a National Assembly comprising of the two chambers namely the Senate and the House of Representative.
There is also a state Assembly in each of the 36 state, also there are 774 Local government throughout the federation which represent the third –tier of government. The third –tier is nearest to the grassroot .With this arrangement and development Nigerians have accepted their destiny that the civilian democracy is the form of government that can guarantee full participation of the entire citizenry, ensure good governance and rapid socio –economic development. Uuuh?
Political History Since 1999
Since democracy ushered in since 1999 country had witnessed a gradual but impressive transformation of political land scape.This was evidence as country stated with only 3 political parties in 1999, .but in 2003, 25 new political parties came on-board and about 100 political registered 2015 general election.
Though, crude oil constitutes about 95% of generated revenue to the country. But in an attempt to diversity the economy, the government increased production in the non-oil sector of the economy in the name of diversification by creating a level-playing field for private sector led activity. The sectors being considered presently are;
- Agriculture and crop industries
- Solid minerals development
- Natural Resources
- Information and communication technology